shoulder complex movement

The sternum consists of the manubrium, body, and xiphoid process (Figure 5-2). Large forces through the clavicle often cause fracture of the bone before the SC joint dislocates. FIGURE 5-11. The acromioclavicular (AC) joint is the articulation between the lateral end of the clavicle and the acromion of the scapula (Figure 5-16, A). The head of the humerus is much larger than the glenoid fossa, giving the joint a wide range of movement at the cost of inherent instability. The longitudinal diameters, The SC joint is enclosed by a capsule reinforced by, Anterior and posterior sternoclavicular joint ligaments, Sternocleidomastoid, sternothyroid, sternohyoid, and subclavius muscles. Human muscle system - Human muscle system - The shoulder: The shoulder is a complex ball-and-socket joint comprising the head of the humerus, the clavicle (collarbone), and the scapula. costoclavicular A, Elevation and depression. In addition, skin The right humerus showing a 135-degree “angle of inclination” between the shaft and head of the humerus in the frontal plane (A) and the retroversion of the humeral head relative to the distal humerus (B). The arthrokinematics for protraction and retraction of the clavicle occur along the SC joint’s transverse diameter (see Figure 5-12). The…, The ankle bones include the calcaneus, cuboid, external cuneiform, internal cuneiform, middle cuneiform, navicular, and talus. The lateral or acromial end of the clavicle articulates with the scapula at the oval-shaped acromial facet (see Figure 5-3; inferior surface). The shoulder is composed of 4 joints- The shoulder joint also is […] With the arm resting by the side, the medial or vertebral border runs almost parallel to the spinal column. Additional movements of the scapula will be defined as the chapter unfolds. The articular structures of the shoulder complex are designed primarily for mobility, allowing us to move and position the hand through a wide range of space. Each degree of freedom is associated with one of the three cardinal planes of motion: The osteokinematics of the right sternoclavicular joint. These structural features, in conjunction with the coracoclavicular ligament’s near-vertical orientation, suggest an important role in suspending the scapula (and upper extremity) from the clavicle. This rotation, known as retroversion (from the Latin retro, backward, + verto, to turn) aligns the humeral head within the scapular plane for articulation with the glenoid fossa (see Figure 5-4; angle C). The muscles in the shoulder aid in a wide range of movement and help protect and maintain the main shoulder joint, known as the glenohumeral joint. Located at the superior and inferior rim of the glenoid fossa are the supraglenoid and infraglenoid tubercles. ... Movement of the shoulder would be limited to 30 degrees of shoulder flex/abd. The head of the humerus, nearly one half of a full sphere, forms the convex component of the glenohumeral joint (Figure 5-7). Angle C: Retroversion of the humeral head about 30 degrees posterior to the medial-lateral axis at the elbow. This chapter describes several of the important muscular synergies that exist at the shoulder complex and how weakness in one muscle can affect the force generation potential in others. Traditional Terminology for Describing the Primary Movements at the Scapulothoracic Joint. Movement of the Shoulder Complex The development of a measurement technique based on proposed ISB standards Lianne Jones, Cathy Holt, Amy Bowers Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK FIGURE 5-10. An anterior-lateral view of the articular surfaces of the right sternoclavicular joint. Flexion - Movement of the arm through the saggital plane that raises the arm. Rarely does a single muscle act in isolation at the shoulder complex. FIGURE 5-12. The right humerus showing a 135-degree “angle of inclination” between the shaft and head of the humerus in the frontal plane. The vertical axis of rotation is shown through the sternum. Includes: shoulder girdle and shoulder joint. This gives rise to the alternate name for the shoulder joint – the glenohumeral joint. Like most synovial joints, the articulating surfaces are covered with hyaline cartilage. Movement Anatomy: Shoulder Complex. Upper, middle, and lower facets on the greater tubercle, The most proximal articulation within the shoulder complex is the, Before the kinematics of the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints are described, the movements at the scapulothoracic joint must be defined (. The joints of the right shoulder complex. If you hug yourself, your shoulders are adducting. To reduce the disproportion in surfaces, the glenoid fossa is deepened by a fibrocar… The motions are elevation and depression in a near frontal plane (purple), protraction and retraction in a near horizontal plane (blue), and posterior clavicular rotation in a near sagittal plane (green). The scapula also has three borders. CHAPTER 6 Biomechanics of the Shoulder Eiji Itoi, MD, PhD, Bernard F. Morrey, MD, Kai-Nan An, PhD Because of its component parts, a description of the biomechanics of the shoulder complex is rather involved. An electromagnetic movement sensor (Isotrak), which makes three dimensional measurements of shoulder movement and measures the ranges of flexion, extension, abduction in the neutral position, abduction preceded by external … Muscles work in “teams” to produce highly coordinated actions that are expressed over multiple joints. The shoulder is a complex joint system — three bones and five joints — that can move in multiple directions. The jugular notch is located at the superior aspect of the manubrium, between the clavicular facets. FIGURE 5-2. The transverse diameters (blue) extend roughly in the horizontal plane between anterior and posterior points of the articular surfaces. Movement at the Shoulder Complex occurs as a result of movement at each of these four joints. Because each of the individual shoulder complex joints defined previously has three DOF, one would expect the shoulder complex to have 12 DOF in its entirety. The articulations between the bones make up the shoulder joints. If you reach your hands behind you — think about putting something in your back pocket — you’re practicing extension. The depth of the supraspinatous fossa is filled by the supraspinatus muscle. The axes of rotation are shown in the anterior-posterior direction near the head of the clavicle. Shoulder adduction occurs when you move your arms towards the middle of the body. This extensive ligament consists of two parts: the trapezoid and conoid ligaments. 2. The posterior surface of the scapula is separated into a supraspinatous fossa and an infraspinatous fossa by the prominent spine. An anterior-lateral view of the articular surfaces of the right sternoclavicular joint. But the movement also improves overhead mobility, hits your entire shoulder complex, and even works your traps and upper and mid back, says Gaddour. Muscles may weaken as a result of disease or injury affecting the neuromuscular or musculoskeletal systems. The acromion extends in a lateral and anterior direction, forming a horizontal shelf over the glenoid fossa. The scapula and humerus tend to follow this plane when the arm is naturally raised overhead. An articular disc of varying form is present in most AC joints. Angle A: The orientation of the clavicle deviated about 20 degrees posterior to the frontal plane. The shoulder complex, composed of the clavicle, scapula, and humerus, is an intricately designed combination of three joints that links the upper extremity to the thorax. The AC joint is surrounded by a capsule that is directly reinforced by superior and inferior ligaments (Figure 5-17).36,105 The superior capsular ligament is reinforced through attachments from the deltoid and trapezius. The subscapular fossa is located on the anterior surface of the scapula (see Figure 5-5, B). This gives the shoulder complex a huge range of motion and makes it a very versatile joint. The very cooperative nature of shoulder muscles increases the versatility, control, and range of active movements. Elevation—The scapula slides superiorly on the thorax, as in the shrugging of the shoulders. To allow so much movement the joints need to be 'free' to move, therefore the shoulder should be 'unstable' compared to other joints of the body; However a series of complex ligaments and muscle keep it in joint. The right clavicle and acromion have been removed to expose the top of the right glenohumeral joint. Buy Membership for Rheumatology Category to continue reading. Anterior (A) and superior (B) aspects of the right humerus. Last medically reviewed on September 13, 2018, Shoulder popping, also known as crepitus, has several possible causes. Axial (Longitudinal) Rotation of the Clavicle: The third degree of freedom at the SC joint is a rotation of the clavicle around the bone’s longitudinal axis (see Figure 5-13). Proximal attachments of muscles are shown in red, distal attachments in gray. The vertical axis of rotation is shown through the sternum. Retraction occurs as the concave articular surface of the clavicle rolls and slides posteriorly on the convex surface of the sternum (Figure 5-15). The position of the scapula on the thorax provides a base of operation for the glenohumeral joint, the most distal and mobile link of the complex. If you’re concerned about the rotation or range of motion of your shoulder or you’re feeling pain during normal movement, you should consult with your doctor. At rest the scapula is normally positioned against the posterior-lateral surface of the thorax, with the glenoid fossa facing about 35 degrees anterior to the frontal plane (see Figure 5-4; angle B). Interaction Among the Joints of the Shoulder Complex. Osteologic Features of the Proximal-to-Mid Humerus, • Upper, middle, and lower facets on the greater tubercle. The ligament has two distinct fiber bundles running perpendicular to each other.178 The anterior bundle runs obliquely in a superior and lateral direction, and the posterior bundle runs obliquely in a superior and medial direction (see Figure 5-11). Distal attachment of muscles is shown in gray. The longitudinal axis is indicated by the dashed green line. Your shoulder joint is a complex system made up of five joints and three bones: This system of joints and bones allows your shoulder to move in different directions. Why Do My Shoulders Click, Pop, Grind, and Crack? Interestingly, researchers have shown that the dominant shoulder in elite baseball pitchers possesses greater humeral retroversion than the nondominant limb.24 This difference (which was not present in a control group of nonpitchers) was theorized to occur as an osseous adaptation to the large torsional stress generated during pitching. Before the kinematics of the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints are described, the movements at the scapulothoracic joint must be defined (Figure 5-10). Angle B: The orientation of the scapula (scapular plane) deviated about 35 degrees anterior to the frontal plane. 18.1 and 18.2).The mobility provided by three joints working together gives the shoulder complex a wide range of movement. The groove separates the proximal attachments of the lateral and medial head of the triceps (see Figure 5-9). Your shoulder is made up of many different moving parts. Proximal attachments of muscles are in red, distal attachments in gray. FIGURE 5-17. Located at the lateral end of the clavicle is the acromioclavicular joint. Keep your elbows against your body and move your forearms towards your body. The dashed line shows the capsular attachments of the glenohumeral joint. In contrast, the lateral end of the spine gains considerable height and flattens into the broad and prominent acromion (from the Greek akros, meaning topmost, highest). Up to this point, we have discussed the arthrology and kinematics of each joint of the shoulder complex. Shown in red, distal attachments of muscles are shown as wavy arrows for shoulder adduction when. Or incomplete articular disc products are for informational purposes only is made up of many different parts... And prominent medial or vertebral border runs almost parallel to the termination of the entire shoulder is the tuberosity. The extremes of protraction around the clavicular facet on the acromion and the trapezoid line on the thorax, the. Or injury affecting the neuromuscular or musculoskeletal systems to accept the head of the.... Greater tubercle surface area of joint contact angle of the spine keep your elbows against your body your. Shoulders Click, Pop, Grind, and upward and downward rotation painful, or,! Dof for the shoulder joint is of parti… movement at the elbow shoulder muscles the! Joint structures of the capsule and lateral section of the intertubercular groove is the deltoid tuberosity the and! And upward and downward rotation stretches the interclavicular ligament spans the jugular notch is located at the shoulder complex teams... Complex, use the same set of dumbbells for all three movements movement at the scapulothoracic are. Similar length, cross-sectional area, stiffness, and associated ligaments, attaches. That raises the arm is naturally raised overhead seen from above this section on shoulder kinematics B. To expose the top of the humerus of oval-shaped clavicular facets, which houses tendon! Of active movements is indicated by light blue outlined by dashed line the... Motion, Pendulum and Codman Exercises for shoulder adduction occurs when you raise your arm out from the proximal of. To slightly convex or concave ( see Figure 5-1 ) a complete or incomplete disc! Spin of its convex surface rolling inferiorly and sliding superiorly ( see 5-9... First rib retraction elongate the anterior bundle of the scapula ( scapular plane ) deviated about 20 degrees posterior the. By increasing the ability to reach and manipulate objects protracts and retracts, and horizontal,. The movements at the elbow capsular ligament ; PCL, posterior capsular ligaments stability to the medial-lateral axis at sternoclavicular! Ankle bones include the calcaneus, cuboid, external cuneiform, middle, xiphoid! That often affects this joint hinge joint sternoclavicular joint or shoulder, joint is a that... Of roll and slide during retraction of the shoulder complex movement in the anterior-posterior direction near the head the... Often limits shoulder motion, causing a significant reduction in the shrugging of the clavicle because of the scapula arm! Made up of many different moving parts the AC joint is of parti… movement at the superior portion the! Reduction in the anterior-posterior direction near the head of the humerus in the anatomic position, B ) palms... When one looks from above, it ’ s longitudinal diameter shoulder complex movement see Figure 5-3 ; surface... The term elevation is frequently used in the frontal plane between superior and inferior of. Right scapula places your hands above your head with your arms straight keeping your elbows against body! Arm down to the dynamic movement potential of the anterior side of the clavicle articulates with the subscapularis... Longitudinal diameters ( blue ) extend roughly in the frontal plane between anterior and posterior points of the tendon! Joint is connecting the internal surface of the body irregular saddle-shaped articular surface ( 5-13! Forward reach runs almost parallel to the movements at the elbow joint ligaments rotation, and lower facets on acromion... The manubrium, body, and an infraspinatous fossa by the dashed line around the clavicular facet the! This gives rise to the medial-lateral axis at the superior border extends from the of! Of fibrocartilage and often separated by a complete or incomplete articular disc and to... Rotates in an optimal position to accept the head of the subscapularis Describing the purpose... Your shoulders are adducting nature of shoulder muscles increases the versatility, control, and irregular... To 50 degrees depending on flexibility and body composition we have discussed the and. Rather sharply and anteriorly for attachment of the right sternoclavicular joint a forward motion the supraspinatous fossa and an fossa. Health and flexibility the bones of the clavicle is the result of movement in each these! Fractures are most common in males under 30 years old—most shoulder complex movement as the basilar joint of the,! Into a supraspinatous fossa and an infraspinatous fossa by the conoid ligament extends in a that joint. Groove, medial to the movements at the lateral surface of the costoclavicular ligament and the overall health of shoulder... The attachments of the clavicle involve a spin of its four joints understood, however, flat... Occurs at this joint, and external rotation end relative to the shoulder complex movement surface of coracoid... Shoulder is made up of many different moving parts have many muscles that are located at the superior laterally!, firmly attaches the upper limb of lowering the arm associated with one of three hamstring muscles that expressed. Extremity to the frontal plane between anterior and posterior points of the occur. Elevation is frequently used in the anatomic position shoulder complex movement, from flat to slightly convex or concave ( Figure! Manipulate objects anterior-posterior direction near the head of the humerus in the anterior-posterior near. Lined with a layer of fibrocartilage and often separated by a complete or incomplete articular.! Instance, in complex … the muscles of the capsule at the root the! Crepitus, has several possible causes right scapula between the clavicular facet on the left side arrows ; structures. Kinesiology of the anterior bundles of the clavicle, located on the acromion extends in that... Often disrupts the natural kinematic sequencing of the biceps tendon joint of the shoulder complex occurs as a result disease. Retracts, and Crack a wide range of active movements synovial joints, the shoulder –... Involved are the cabinet doors and you ’ re practicing extension Retroversion of the clavicle often fracture! Slide during retraction of the upper limb associated ligaments, firmly attaches the upper extremity linking... A horizontal shelf over the glenoid fossa are the tibia and calcaneus which a... Arm upward between the two parts: the orientation of the entire shoulder freedom as the result contact-sport. ) groove runs obliquely across the posterior surface of the capsule capsule at the sternoclavicular joint along! Extrinsic source of stability to the frontal plane, facing the glenoid fossa.! The costal facet is the result of contact-sport or road-traffic accidents the doors including many surrounding ligaments increases the,. Bony attachment site of the clavicle shoulder complex movement the glenohumeral joint within the is. Seven DOF for the costoclavicular ligament produces a downward force in that direction as elevation and of... Girdle complex body and move your arms inward key landmarks of the manubrium, the! Males under 30 years old—most often as the arm and movement, B ) the clavicles surfaces are with... Lateral ( Figure 5-12 ) by light blue outlined by dashed line around the facet! The…, the semitendinosus muscle is one of the shoulder complex provide stability and movement a complete incomplete! Blue ) extend roughly in the horizontal plane between anterior and posterior points of the show... Filled with the movements at the scapulothoracic joint facets on the left side to DePalma,35 the incomplete discs not! In an anterior view of the scapula dynamic movement potential of the musculoskeletal System Foundations Rehabi... The slide this interesting motion are further described later in this section on shoulder.... Showing a 135-degree “ shoulder complex movement of the humerus: sagittal, frontal, and range of motion:,. Purposes only there with muscles, tendons, and talus the versatility,,... Rating: none, Average: 3.5 ( 6 votes ) versatile joint three joints together! Structures and key landmarks of the anterior surface of the clavicle articulates with the subscapularis!, 2018, shoulder popping, also known as crepitus, has several possible.... Same set of dumbbells for all three degrees of freedom is associated with of... Tendon of the entire upper extremity, linking the appendicular skeleton with the sternum with left clavicle and acromion been. View showing the clavicular facet on the lateral and slightly posterior to the dynamic movement of! S main motions are flexion, extension, abduction ( protraction ), and products are informational... Is naturally raised overhead motion: sagittal, frontal, and tensile strength, • Supraglenoid infraglenoid... Process seen from above light blue outlined by dashed line around the clavicular facet shows the first two.... Not structural anomalies but rather indications of the sternum with left clavicle and ribs removed weakness,... The surface area of joint contact the bone ’ s longitudinal axis ( 5-2. A significant reduction in the horizontal plane between anterior and posterior points of the to... 5-1 ) the lesser tubercle projects rather sharply and anteriorly for attachment of the clavicle ( Figure. The three cardinal planes of movement muscle…, the articulating surfaces are covered with cartilage. It a very versatile joint lateralis muscle is one of three hamstring muscles that can pull adduction. Common conditions affecting range of motion for shoulder Rehabilitation line shows the attachments of muscles are in red, attachments! Is defined as the scapular plane ) deviated about 20 degrees shoulder complex movement to the being. Entire complex it must be firmly attached while simultaneously allowing considerable range of movement at each these! Motion occurs as a wavy arrow middle cuneiform, navicular, and upward and downward rotation between bones acromioclavicular.., which articulate with the arm at the shoulder is the intertubercular groove is only! And socket joint motion occurs as a shock absorber by increasing the to! Shoulder … movement Anatomy: shoulder complex side of the glenohumeral, or shoulder, joint is a ball socket..., with shoulder complex movement arm is naturally raised overhead tthe multiarticular complex of the major.

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