imperial japanese navy air force

The following year, in 1913 a Navy transport ship, the Wakamiya was converted into a seaplane tender, a number of aircraft were also purchased. [16] Land based aircraft, actually provided the bulk of Japanese naval aviation up to the eve of the Pacific War. [31] Unlike in the United States Navy where carrier divisions served only in an administrative capacity, the carrier divisions of the Kido Butai were operational entities. The two carriers in a division fought together, often exchanging aircraft squadrons and commanders on strikes. The Japanese strategic bombing were mostly done against Chinese big cities, such as Shanghai, Wuhan and Chonging, with around 5,000 raids from February 1938 to August 1943. The first two letters and the series number remained the same for the service life of each design. There were over 90 naval air groups at the start of the Pacific War, each assigned either a name or a number. The IJN had, at the beginning of the Pacific War, three aircraft designation systems:[13] The Experimental Shi numbers, the Type numbering system and an aircraft designation system broadly similar to that used by the U.S. Navy from 1922 until 1962. Japanese pilot with parachute descends towards the water, 17 April 1945.jpg 591 × 605; 188 KB [9] Japanese naval aviation also, both in technology and in doctrine, continued to be dependent on the British model for most of the 1920s. They were to operate out of six new air stations at Ōminato, Saeki, Yokohama, Maizuru, Kanoya, and Kisarazu in the home islands and Chinhae on the southern coast of Korea. In January 1932, clashes between Chinese and Japanese forces occurred in Shanghai. [N 2] By the end of the siege the aircraft had conducted 50 sorties and dropped 200 bombs, although damages to German defenses were light. The Japanese Navy had also observed technical developments in other countries and saw that the airplane had potential. Over the next 20 years, the British Peer provided the Japanese with secret information on the latest British aviation technology. These escort carriers possessed the capacity to operate from eight to 38 aircraft, depending on type and size, and were also used to transport personnel and tanks. Controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. The Japanese navy had closely monitored the progress of aviation of the three Allied naval powers during World War I and concluded that Britain had made the greatest advances in naval aviation, they had also learned a good deal about naval aviation through their contacts within the Royal Navy. THE IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVY AIR FORCE . They viewed carrier aircraft to be employed as support for the main battle fleet and not as offensive weapons. The IJN had, at the beginning of the Pacific War, three aircraft designation systems: The Experimental Shi numbers, the Type numbering system and an aircraft designation system broadly similar to that used by the U.S. Navyfrom 1922 until 1962. They were usually numbered when they left Japan. [15] Aircraft were to act as scouts and spotters, layers of smoke screens for naval gunfire, fleet air defense, and later (with the increase in aircraft performance) as a means to attack battleships and other surface targets. Let’s take a look at their initial achievements first. [24] Aircrews of Kaga received a special commendation from the commander of the Third Fleet, Vice Admiral Kichisaburō Nomura, for their actions. Aircraft with armor and self-sealing fuel tanks, such as the Kawanishi N1K-J would not enter service until late 1944–1945, which was too late to have a meaningful impact. In 1912, the Royal Navy had established its own flying branch, the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). Each hikotai was commanded by a Lieutenant (j.g. Air arm of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The Japanese, together with a token British force, then laid siege to the German held territory of Kiaochow and its administrative capital Tsingtao on the Shandong peninsula. At the begining of World War II, the Imperial Navy had created the finest naval aviation corps in the world. [4] On 30 September Wakamiya was damaged by a mine and later sent back to Japan for repairs. Because of the short range of carrier aircraft at the time, many in the naval hierarchy were still very much surface oriented. Now, before we take a look at the shortcoming of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which were quite different to those of the Army. From the onset of hostilities in 1937 until forces were diverted to combat the Americans in 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service played a key role in military operations on the Chinese mainland. The senior command was the Eleventh Naval Air Fleet, commanded by Vice Admiral Nishizō Tsukahara. [25] Naval involvement reached its peak in 1938–39 with the ferocious bombardment of cities deep in the Chinese interior by land-based medium bombers and concluded during 1941 with an attempt by tactical aircraft, both carrier and land-based, to cut communication and transportation routes in southern China. [8] In 1920, a representative had also been sent to Britain to observe air operations off the decks of Furious. [4] The British government hoped it would lead to lucrative an arms deal. WWII Imperial Japanese Naval Aviation Page. (G4M designated attack bomber (G), the fourth in the Navy's sequence, designed or produced by Mitsubishi, while G5N would be the next attack bomber in sequence, built by Nakajima.). The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service was equal in function to the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm (FAA), the U.S. Navy's Naval Aviation branch, the Italian Navy's Aviazione Ausiliara per la Marina, or the Soviet Navy's Morskaya Aviatsiya. [citation needed], The elite of the pilots were the carrier-based air groups (Kōkūtai, later called koku sentai) whose size (from a handful to 80 or 90 aircraft) was dependent on both the mission and type of aircraft carrier that they were on. [1] That year, the commission decided to purchase foreign winged aircraft and to send junior officers abroad to learn how to fly and maintain them. [3] A major expansion in Japanese naval air strength was part of the 1918 naval expansion program which made possible a new air group and a naval air station at Sasebo. Japanese fighter planes, notably the Mitsubishi Zero, gained tactical air superiority; control of the skies over China belonged to the Japanese. They initially procured European aircraft but quickly built their own and launched themselves onto an ambitious aircraft carrier building program. [18], By 1927 Japanese naval aviation had grown sufficiently in size and complexity that, it was necessary to consolidate the administrative organization of the air service. These designs were used from 1931 onwards. It retained this mission to the end. Each naval air group consisted of a base unit and 12 to 36 aircraft, plus four to 12 aircraft in reserve. [23], From the onset of hostilities in 1937 until forces were diverted to combat for the Pacific war in 1941, naval aircraft played a key role in military operations on the Chinese mainland. Japanese navy aviators, like their army counterparts, preferred maneuverable aircraft, leading to lightly built but extraordinarily agile types, most famously the A6M Zero, which achieved its feats by sacrificing armor and self-sealing fuel tanks. Buy The Airforce of the Imperial Japanese Navy: Carrier-based aircraft 1922-45 (II) [Air Collection]: v. 2 by Cea, Eduardo (ISBN: 9788496935051) from Amazon's Book Store. [8] Hōshō was the second warship after the British Hermes to be designed from the keel up as an aircraft carrier and the first one to be completed as from the keel up.[8]. During the siege, starting from September, Maurice Farman seaplanes onboard (two active and two reserve) the Wakamiya conducted reconnaissance and aerial bombardments on German positions and ships. Despite the fierce rivalry between military branches, in the fall of 1937 General Matsui Iwane, the Army general in command of the theater, admitted the superiority of the Naval Air Services. On 10 December, Japanese naval land based bombers operating from bases in Indochina, were also responsible for the sinkings of HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse which was the first time that capital ships were sunk by aerial attack while underway. The Imperial Japanese navy sought to westernize and base its power off of the British Navy ideals. The British government decided to send Force Z, which included the state-of-the-art battleship Prince of Wales and the battlecruiser Repulse, to bolster the naval defences of Singapore, and provide a mighty naval deterrent to Japanese aggression. In 1917, officers at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal designed and built the first Japanese seaplane, the Ro-Go Ko-gata reconnaissance seaplane, which was much more useful at sea and much safer than the Maurice Farman aircraft that the navy had been using up to that point. [2] The navy purchased two seaplanes from the Glenn Curtiss factory in Hammondsport, New York, and two Maurice Farman seaplanes from France. At the beginning of the Second World War, the Japanese Navy (or, in the Japanese language, Nihon Kaigun, or even Teikoku Kaigun, the Imperial Navy) was arguably the most powerful navy in the world.Its naval aviation corps, consisting of 10 aircraft carriers and 1500 topnotch aviators, was the most highly trained and proficient force of its kind. They are often directed against places far from the actual area of hostilities. In the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, and again in the Guadalcanal Campaign, the Japanese lost many veteran pilots. Next to the clash of infantry in Burma, Malaysia, New Guinea and China, it over all was the clash of two navies, with specialized infantry, US Marines and Japanese Navy troops. [14] With these two carriers much of Imperial Japanese Navy's doctrines and operating procedures were established. Furthermore, the Circle naval expansion programs featured an additional 12 air groups, they also included the development of specific aviation technologies and the acceleration of air crew training. Conflicts. They are often directed against places far from the actual area of hostilities. The evolution of Japanese naval power in the five decades leading up to World War II was one of the most significant trends of the 20th Century. On 30 September the Wakamiya was later damaged by a mine, but the seaplanes (by transferring to land) continued to used against the German defenders until their surrender on 7 November 1914. Each new design was first given an experimental Shi number, based upon the current Japanese imperial year of reign. [19] On 3 February, a number of the aircraft from the two carriers were deployed to Kunda Airfield, where they flew missions in support of Japanese ground forces. The aircraft had crude bombsights and carried six to ten bombs that had been converted from shells, and were released through metal tubes on each side of the cockpit. [10] The mission consisted of 27 members, who were largely personnel with experience in naval aviation and included pilots and engineers from several British aircraft manufacturing firms. Region name; Category 'B' air group (乙航空隊, Otsu Kōkūtai) as air base guard unit. During the first six months of the war Japanese naval air power achieved spectacular success and spearheaded offensive operations against Allied forces. On December 7, 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked Pearl Harbor crippling the U.S Pacific Fleet and destroying over 188 aircraft for a loss of 29 aircraft. The IJN Air Service had the mission of national air defence, deep strike, naval warfare, and so forth. The senior command was the Eleventh Naval Air Fleet, commanded by Vice Admiral Nishizō Tsukahara. However, the long duration of the training program, combined with a shortage of gasoline for training, did not allow the Navy to rapidly provide qualified replacements in sufficient numbers. It was controlled by the Navy Staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Navy Ministry. With these two carriers much of Imperial Japanese Navy's doctrines and operating procedures were established. [15] But with the continued increase in the range and power of aircraft, carriers became acknowledged for their ability to strike at targets beyond the range of surface guns and torpedoes. The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) IJN Achievements. The organization was responsible for the operation of naval aircraft and the conduct of aerial warfare in the Pacific War. The Japanese pilot training program was very selective and rigorous, producing a high-quality and long-serving pilot corps, who ruled the air in the Pacific during early World War II. The Circle One plan concentrated on developing new aircraft types, including large flying boats and land-based attack aircraft, as well as the building of seaborne units, both floatplanes and carrier aircraft. [19] There were heavy civilian casualties and property loses, partly as a result of crude bombing techniques and mechanisms at the time. Early in World War II, Imperial Japanese Navy pilots went through a rigorous and at times brutal cadet program. The Mitsubishi Zero so started its career as Navy Experimental 12-Shi Carrier Fighter. Just as the IJA in general was modeled mainly on the German Army, the IJAAS initially developed along similar lines to the Imperial German Army Aviation; its primary mission was to provide tactical close air support for ground forces, as well as a limited air interdiction capability. Numbered name; Special setting air group (特設航空隊, Tokusetsu-Kōkūtai). ), Warrant Officer, or experienced Chief Petty Officer, while most pilots were non-commissioned officers. The organization was responsible for the operation of naval aircraft and the conduct of aerial warfare in the Pacific War. See more ideas about wwii aircraft, ww2 aircraft, imperial japanese navy. However, the long duration of the training program, combined with a shortage of gasoline for training, did not allow the IJN to rapidly provide qualified replacements in sufficient numbers. [5] The mission also brought the plans of the most recent British aircraft carriers, such as the HMS Argus and the HMS Hermes, which influenced the final stages of the development of the carrier Hōshō. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEvanPeattie1997 (, Organization of the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service, Military History of Japan during World War II, List of Japanese Navy Air Force aces (Mitsubishi A6M), List of radar models of the Imperial Japanese Navy, List of bombs used by the Imperial Japanese Navy, List of weapons on Japanese combat aircraft, List of Aircraft engines in use of Japanese Navy Air Force, Japanese marine paratroopers of World War II, "The Highland peer who prepared Japan for war", "British aviation pioneer was a spy for Japan", https://web.archive.org/web/20091027182301/http://uk.geocities.com/sadakichi09/, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Imperial_Japanese_Navy_Air_Service&oldid=993882270, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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